Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
According to Sigmund Freud, the development of an individual's personality is based upon the stages of the individuals experienced in the growing years.
These stages is referred to be as the “psycho-sexual” development; these are the oral stage (0 to 2 years), the anal stages (2 to 4 years, the phallic stage (4 to 6 years) and the genital stage (12 years and up).
Sigmund Freud gave emphasis about the sexual feeling or emotions as an important factor in these stages of development.
The first stage of development covers the first two years of an individual's life. This time the center of pleasure is in the mouth. It is observe that young children or infants performs a lot of sucking activities. According to the theory, the infants tries to learn the environment through the activities that involve the use of the mouth.
If an infant once to be experiencing a frustration, of not being able to meet the needs through oral activities, there are tendency that these needs might manifest later in life in the form of some other things such as eating and smoking.
The second stage is the anal stage. This stage covers the ages 2 to 4 years when according to the theory , children begin to experience pleasure from the process of elimination. This time parents use to train their children in toilet activities.
Sigmund Freud implies that toilet training is important because parent's lack or over attention may lead to some problems that are associated with the fixation of some of development of this stage such as; compulsive needs to be clean and orderly, frugality and stinginess; greed; and obstinate insistence of doing thing at one's rate even at the expense of one's patience and time, and excessive messiness and disorderly habits.
The third stage is the phallic stage. This stage covers the ages 4 to 6 years. According to Sigmund's theory, the children in this stage derive pleasures from the activity that is related or associated with the stroking and manipulating of their sex organ.
The fourth stage is the latency stage. This stage covers the ages 9 to 12 years. In this stage according to the theory, there are many conflicting and disturbing feeling buried in the subconscious mind. The energies of the children are said to be absorbed by many concerns such as the school, the peer relation, sports and other activities. This period is considered as calm and stable.
The fifth stage and last stage is the genital stage. This stage covers the ages 12 year and up and it starts with the onset of puberty. According to Freud, in this stage, the dependence from the parents are overcome. An individual can now start to establish a life of his own